Early Historical Period : Solasa Mahajanapadas
In the early sixth century bc, shortly before the rise of Buddhism, there were sixteen large territorial states (Solasa- mahajanapada) in north India. These states, according to the Buddhist work the Anguttara Nikaya, were Anga, Magadha, Kasi, Kosala, Vrijji (Vajji), Malla, Chedi. Vatsa (Vamsa). Kuru, Panchala, Matsya (Maccha), Surasena, Asmaka (Assaka), Avanti, Gandhara and Kamboja. The Digha Nikaya refers to some of them in pairs— Kasi-Kosala, Vrijji-Malla, Chedi-Vamsa, Kuru- Panchala and Matsya-Surasena, while another Buddhist source (Chullaniddesa) adds Kalinga to the list and substitutes Yona for Gandhara.